Marine Forests are amongst the most iconic coastal habitats, supporting rich biodiversity, with the capacity to deliver key ecosystem services and support blue growth. BlueForesting builds upon these ideas to develop science-based recommendations and guidance for protecting and restoring Marine Forests and their services under climate change influence, including identifying species and climate refugia areas.

The Blueforesting circle: from science to policy and vice-versa. Adapted from Visbeck et al. 2018.


The ocean provides vital benefits for humans, such as food and the regulation of global climate. However, ocean ecosystems are themselves vulnerable to anthropogenic and climate pressures.


Innovative solutions to foster sustainable climate change mitigation actions and to improve the condition and resilience of marine ecosystems are required.


The coast of northern Portugal where we can find the southernmost North Atlantic seaweed forests of several cold-adapted species.


Blueforesting project is structured by 7 Activities, to provide science-based guidance for the design and implementation of Nature Based Solutions to foster sustainable and healthy marine forests in North Atlantic seashores and communicate these to widest audience possible

Blueforesting is financed by the EEA Grants under the Blue Growth program.

The EEA Grants represent the contribution of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway towards a green, competitive and inclusive Europe.


There are two overall objectives: reduction of economic and social disparities in Europe, and to strengthen bilateral relations between the donor countries and 15 EU countries in Central and Southern Europe and the Baltics.


The three donor countries cooperate closely with the EU through the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA). The donors have provided €3.3 billion through consecutive grant schemes between 1994 and 2014. For the period 2014-2021, the EEA Grants amount to €1.55 billion. The priorities for this period are:


  1. Innovation, Research, Education and Competitiveness
  2. Social Inclusion, Youth Employment and Poverty Reduction
  3. Environment, Energy, Climate Change and Low Carbon Economy
  4. Culture, Civil Society, Good Governance and Fundamental Rights
  5. Justice and Home Affairs

The EEA Grants are jointly financed by Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, whose contributions are based on their GDP.

Eligibility for the Grants mirror the criteria set for the EU Cohesion Fund aimed at member countries where the Gross National Income (GNI) per inhabitant is less than 90% of the EU average.